TAG Sync and Neurofeedback Theory Behind TAG Sync Possible Mechanisms References Cybernetics, Kuramoto, Live Complexity Training Small World Networks Sickness Behavior Complexity Global Broad Band Synchronization Cross Frequency Coupling Constructal Law of Physics Meditation and the Medicine Buddha

TAG Sync and Neurofeedback

TAG Sync stands for theta-alpha-gamma synchrony. Theta, alpha & gamma are, respectively, low, medium and high frequency brain waves. TAG Sync is a phenomenon seen in the brain waves (EEG) during learning, insight, problem solving, & the near death experience. As such it may not be seen often in the resting EEG recording. It was predicted and later observed in 2010 by this website’s author, Douglas Dailey. My model also predicted that the brain could better learn to self-regulate its own awake state by  using technology to monitor and feedback its own moment-by- moment synchronization (cross-frequency coupling) of its theta, alpha, gamma and other brain waves. This led to a neurofeedback methodology which I call TAG Sync and a special application called the “General Adaptation Protocol - (GAP)”. It involves training synchronous (coupled) activity across 2 or more frequency bands, using a special on-screen display called the cross-frequency coupling envelopes instrument. In the GAP (General Adaptation Protocol) TAG cross-frequency coupling is trained primarily between the major anterior and posterior midline network hubs located at the electrode sites Fz and Pz. These represent parts of the so- called Default Mode Network “DMN” and Salience Network. This is followed by training the right and/or left Fronto- Parietal task Networks “FPN” using electrode sites F3 and P3 on the left as well as F4 and P4 on the right (see illustration). I call these 6 sites the “DMN/FPN Kernal”. The TAG Sync GAP sites correspond to elements of the so- called “rich club” of the connectome. In 2010 I developed my first TAG Sync software for the Nexus family of amplifiers. It was clear from the beginning that with careful adjustment of theta and alpha reward frequencies large network avalanches (phase resets) could be promoted and they would be followed by increased synchronous movement (cross-frequency coupling) observed in the special envelopes instrument. This was often accompanied by experiences of insight, tranquility and/or persistent non- symbolic experience. I shared this model and methodology with several clinicians starting in 2010. As a result you will find TAG Sync cross-frequency coupling descriptions and case histories in the new Routledge textbook on neurofeedback [1]. When we learn more about “How Nature Works” [2] and “Design in Nature” [3] and the role of “Sync” [4] we  see that one of the best ways to observe and regulate our own adaptability may be to train the original theta, alpha gamma cross- frequency coupling predicted in 2010 to harness complexity through synchrony. Recently a cross-frequency coupling envelopes instrument, similar to my 2010 design, was shown to measure mobilization of human intelligence under task [5].

The theory behind TAG Sync

In 2010 I predicted that the brain could up-regulate its own adaptability and intelligence if it could monitor certain coupled interactions (synchronizations) of specific frequencies of its electrical voice, especially theta, alpha and gamma (TAG Sync). This interaction is called cross-frequency coupling (CFC). Each brain has its own unique patterns of coupled frequencies that energetically (electrically) voice its activity. The CFC (timbre) of a friend’s voice allows it to be picked out of a crowd.  Changes in CFC/timbre allow us to recognize when an instrument is out of tune or damaged, or when a voice is either dissipated or adaptive (e.g., well-rested and awake). In 2010 I predicted that enabling the brain to monitor its CFC during problem solving could enable the brain to more efficiently mobilize and regulate insight, intelligence and awakeness. This led to the first specific employment of cross-frequency coupling protocols in neurofeedback and has been described by Chapin et al (2014) [1]. Cross-frequency coupling is important in this methodology, but it is only one aspect of my broader model, which is especially important because of its implications for the regulation of sickness behavior. My 2010 theory is “Global Broad-Band Synchronization (GBBS) over Small World Networks (SWN) near Self-Organized Criticality (SOC) according to the Constructal Law of Physics (CLaw) predicts design for technology assisted self- regulation (TASR)”. It is easier to say GBBS/SWN (pronounced Gibbs Swan) plus SOC & Claw predicts TASR. Those of you have taken my QEEG class over the last 3 years will recognize 3 new icons toward the bottom of the list, as promised. Those who have not taken the class should know that about half of it involves studying raw EEG. The class outline is posted here. The purpose of the icons is to provide images to remind me of important concepts plus real world examples.
References: [1] Chapin TJ, et al (2014) - Neurotherapy and Neurofeedback: Brain-Based Treatment for Psychological and Behavioral Problems. Routledge. pp 144. [2] Bak P (1999) – How Nature Works: The Science of Self-Organized Criticality.  Copernicus / Springer-Verlag, NY. [3] Bejan A (2012) – Design in Nature: How constructal law governs evolution in biology, physics, technology, and social organization. Anchor. [4] Strogatz S (2003) – Sync: How order emerges from chaos in the universe, nature, and daily life. Hyperion. [5] Pahor A, et al (2014) - Theta–gamma cross-frequency coupling relates to the level of human intelligence. Intelligence 46 (2014) 283-290. [6] Engel AK, et al (2013) - Intrinsic Coupling Modes - Multiscale Interactions in Ongoing Brain Activity. Neuron 80, Nov 20, 867-886. [7] Aru J, et al (2015) - Untangling cross-frequency coupling in neuroscience. Current Opinion in Neurobiology, 31:51–61. [8] Khan S, et al (2013) - Local and long-range functional connectivity is reduced in concert in autism spectrum disorders. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013 Feb 19;110(8):3107-12. [9] Daniels JK, et al (2011) - Default mode alterations in posttraumatic stress disorder related to early-life trauma - a developmental perspective. J Psychiatry Neurosci 2011;36(1) p56. [10] Miskovic V, et al (2011) - Changes in EEG cross-frequency coupling during cognitive behavioral therapy for social anxiety disorder. Psychological Science: 22;507. [11] Zheng C, et al (2015) - Synaptic plasticity-related neural oscillations on hippocampus-prefrontal cortex  pathway in depression. Neuroscience. Feb 12. [12] Xu X, et al (2015) - Effects of Hydrogen Sulfide on Modulation of Theta-Gamma Coupling in Hippocampus  in Vascular Dementia Rats. Brain Topogr. Mar 14. [13] Guirgis M, et al (2015) - Defining regions of interest using cross-frequency coupling in extratemporal lobe epilepsy patients. J Neural Eng. Mar 13;12(2). [14] Pinal D, et al (2015) - Stuck in Default Mode - Inefficient Cross-Frequency Synchronization May Lead to Age- Related Short-Term Memory Decline. Neurobiology of Aging. [15] Velikova S, et al (2010) - Dysfunctional brain circuitry in obsessive-compulsive disorder - Source and coherence analysis of EEG rhythms. Neuroimage 49; 977-983. [16] Allen EA, et al (2011) - Components of Cross-Frequency Modulation in Health and Disease. Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience; 5:59. [17] Adamchic I, et al (2014) - Abnormal cross-frequency coupling in the tinnitus network. Frontiers in Neuroscience, Sept 25. [18] Caixeta FV, et al (2013) - Ketamine alters oscillatory coupling in the hippocampus. Sci Rep. 2013; 3: 2348. [19] Nakatani C, et al (2014) - Efficiency of conscious access improves with coupling of slow and fast neural oscillations. J Cogn Neurosci. 2014 May;26(5):1168-79. [20] Borjigin J, et al (2013) - Surge of neurophysiological coherence and connectivity in the dying brain. Proc Nat Acad Sci, Aug 14, 2013. [21] Martin JA (2013) - A Continuum of Persistent Non-Symbolic Experiences in Adults. Center for the Study of Non- Symbolic Consciousness. [22] Schulman JJ, et al (2011) - Imaging of thalamocortical dysrhythmia in neuropsychiatry. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 29 July. [23] Ulrich G (2013) – The Theoretical Interpretation of Electroencephalography. BMed. [24] Servaas MN, et al (2015) - Connectomics and Neuroticism - An Altered Functional Network Organization. Neuropsychopharmacology 40, 296-304. [25] Shew ML, et al (2012) - The Functional Benefits of Criticality in the Cortex. The Neuroscientist. [26] Ueno K, et al (2014) - Neurophysiological basis of creativity in healthy elderly people: A multiscale entropy approach. Clin Neurophysiol Jul 6. [27] Wiener N (1948) – Cybernetics: On Control and Communication in the Animal and the Machine. MIT Press, Cambridge MA. [28] Dhond RP, et al (2008) - Acupuncture modulates resting state connectivity in default and sensorimotor brain networks. Pain, June; 136(3): 407-418. [29] Russell-Chapin L, et al (2013) - The effects of neurofeedback in the default mode network : Pilot study results of medicated children with ADHD. Journal of Neurotherapy, 17:35-42. [30] Borjigin J, et al (2013) - Surge of neurophysiological coherence and connectivity in the dying brain. Proc Nat Acad Sci, Aug 14, 2013.

Possible Mechanisms of TAG Sync Based Neurofeedback:

1 - TAG Sync trains cross frequency coupling (CFC) to increase under task, a correlate of increased fluid intelligence [5] and a marker of increased efficiency of small world network synchronization [6]; 2 - Reduced efficiency in CFC may represent a common final pathway in sickness behavior [7]; 3 - TAG Sync cross-frequency coupling training (especially on the DMN/FPN kernal) addresses fundamental aspects of the dysregulation found in autism [8], complex childhood PTSD [9], anxiety [10], depression [11], dementia [12], epilepsy [13], memory & aging [14], obsessive compulsive disorder [15], schizophrenia [16], tinnitus [17], and other conditions. 4 - Alteration of cross frequency coupling of theta and gamma can affect the state of consciousness [18]. 5 - Efficiency of conscious access improves with coupling of slow and fast neural oscillations [19]. 6 - TAG Sync monitoring and feedback may be a “pointing out exercise” for the natural non-discursive mind (cf. dzogchen and rigpa) [20]. This may also explain why practitioners may develop persistent non-symbolic experience [21]. 7 - TAG Sync promotes the type of spectral efficiency seen in the absence of sickness behavior in which Energy is coupled to effort [22]. 8 - TAG Sync methodology was predicted from TAG Sync theory to function as an adaptogen to counter stress and hasten adaptive maturation; 9 - The increased cross-frequency coupling seen in TAG Sync training may be a useful correlate of the “vigilance” of Bente and Ulrich [23]. 10 - TAG Sync training can also be called “Live Complexity Training” - LCT - as it helps bind complexity, uncertainty, and potentiality through global broad band synchronization.
Always Under Construction
Last modified:  Oct 2, 2016

CLaw:  Constructal Law of Physics

Bejan states [3] “For a finite-size flow system  to persist in time (to live), its configuration must evolve in such a way that provides easier access  to the  currents that flow through it.” I applied the Constructal Law of Physics to neurocognitive networks and found Global Broad-Band Synchronization over Small World Networks, operating near self-organized criticality.   [more....]

GBBS:  Global Broad Band Synchronization

GBBS (pronounced Gibbs) is a hallmark of consciousness but is not generally detectable in routine EEG. Like the fish in the photo the overwhelmed cortex forms a “bait ball” of synchronous activity. Chronic predator stress causes the bait ball and the brain to fracture and suffer a disconnection syndrome.  [more....]

SWN:  Small World Networks

Precariously poised between rigidity and randomness, strange properties of memory, adaptability and efficiency are possible. A loss of small world efficiency in the cortex heralds cognitive decline [24]. Neurofeedback may function as an adaptogen to increase SWN efficiency. SWNs are embedded. At the top of the cortical hierarchy of SWNs is what TAG Sync calls the “DMN/FPN Kernal” - the so-called “rich club” in the connectome. [more....]

SOC:  Self-Organized Criticality

“... three functional properties of the cortex are optimized at criticality: 1) dynamic range, 2) information transmission, and 3) information capacity.” [25]   [more....]

SBeh: Sickness Behavior:

SBeh refers to a stereotypical dissipation of epigenetic control accompanied by “apoptosis of the self”. It results from a wide variety of trauma, intergenerational factors, chronic social defeat, etc. SBeh has an immune inflammatory component that reduces small world network efficiency and CFC and engenders relapse and other maladaptive behavior. Its alleviation requires neuroprotection, neuroplasticity, and network support.  [more....]

Cybernetics, Norbert Wiener, Kuramoto, Live Complexity Training

Wiener & Rosenblith {MIT} recorded to tape and analyzed the first QEEG. Wiener stressed the importance of alpha as a control frequency and with the ability to “pull” other nearby frequencies to it, similar to the Kuramoto oscillator in neural networks. Cybernetics refers to the mechanisms of control and communication in animals and machines. [27]   [more....]

CFC:  Cross Frequency Coupling

Each instrument or voice has a unique production of bass, middle and high frequencies. This CFC is also called timbre. TAG Sync neurofeedback allows the user to choose any 2 or more frequency bands and train the client to couple their movements together. [more....]

Complexity:

Reduced complexity of the EEG is associated with a “reduced repetoire of functional abilities.” Elderly people with heightened creativity have increased EEG complexity associated with activated neural networks. [26]   [more....]

nTIE: New Theoretical Interpretation of Electroencephalography:

Ulrich [23] describes EEG changes indicating “dissipation” and “disintegration” accompanying intrusion of various sub-awake states. These are managed as they appear during live complexity training  (LCT). LCT (e.g., TAG Sync) reverses the EEG disintegrations of Ulrich and seeks the EEG signature of adaptive awakeness, especially as shown by increased cross-frequency coupling under task.  [more....]

TAMS: Traditional Asian Medical Systems:  Adaptogens for Small World Networks:

Network topology of the five phases (wu xiang) is a small world network. Expert acupuncture helps the default mode network (DMN) mature adaptively according to fMRI [28]. In 2013 our team showed that standard NFB also adaptively matured the DMN [29]. The chronobiology of TAMS is prototypical cross-frequency coupling.  [more....]

The Medicine Buddha: Dzogchen, Bardo Tech, channels, winds and drops:

In 2010 I predicted that TAG Sync could be used as a pointing out exercise for the nature of mind (rigpa), since it appeared to be the EEG signature of bardo between two thoughts. In 2013 it was found to also represent the bardo of the near death experience [30].  [more....]

TASR:  Technology-Assisted Self-Regulation / Self-Realization

The Constructal Law of Physics (CLaw) [3] predicts that humans will evolve human designs (technology) to provide greater access to the flow of knowledge. To be truly awake and processing the environment means harnessing complexity through synchrony (e.g., its cross-frequency coupled components).  [more....]]
Recent semi-completed sections
Copyright 2015, 2016 by Douglas Dailey - All Rights Reserved.
TAG Sync and Neurofeedback Theory Behind TAG Sync Possible Mechanisms References Cybernetics, Kuramoto, Live Complexity Training Small World Networks Sickness Behavior Complexity Global Broad Band Synchronization Cross Frequency Coupling Constructal Law of Physics Meditation and the Medicine Buddha

TAG Sync and Neurofeedback

TAG Sync stands for theta-alpha- gamma synchrony. Theta, alpha & gamma are, respectively, low, medium and high frequency brain waves. TAG Sync is a phenomenon seen in the brain waves (EEG) during learning, insight, problem solving, & the near death experience. As such it may not be seen often in the resting EEG recording. It was predicted and later observed in 2010 by this website’s author, Douglas Dailey. My model also predicted that the brain could better learn to self-regulate its own awake state by  using technology to monitor and feedback its own moment-by-moment synchronization (cross-frequency coupling) of its theta, alpha, gamma and other brain waves. This led to a neurofeedback methodology which I call TAG Sync and a special application called the “General Adaptation Protocol - (GAP)”. It involves training synchronous (coupled) activity across 2 or more frequency bands, using a special on-screen display called the cross-frequency coupling envelopes instrument. In the GAP (General Adaptation Protocol) TAG cross-frequency coupling is trained primarily between the major anterior and posterior midline network hubs located at the electrode sites Fz and Pz. These represent parts of the so-called Default Mode Network “DMN” and Salience Network. This is followed by training the right and/or left Fronto-Parietal task Networks “FPN” using electrode sites F3 and P3 on the left as well as F4 and P4 on the right (see illustration). I call these 6 sites the “DMN/FPN Kernal”. The TAG Sync GAP sites correspond to elements of the so-called “rich club” of the connectome. In 2010 I developed my first TAG Sync software for the Nexus family of amplifiers. It was clear from the beginning that with careful adjustment of theta and alpha reward frequencies large network avalanches (phase resets) could be promoted and they would be followed by increased synchronous movement (cross-frequency coupling) observed in the special envelopes instrument. This was often accompanied by experiences of insight, tranquility and/or persistent non-symbolic experience. I shared this model and methodology with several clinicians starting in 2010. As a result you will find TAG Sync cross-frequency coupling descriptions and case histories in the new Routledge textbook on neurofeedback [1]. When we learn more about “How Nature Works” [2] and “Design in Nature” [3] and the role of “Sync” [4] we  see that one of the best ways to observe and regulate our own adaptability may be to train the original theta, alpha gamma cross-frequency coupling predicted in 2010 to harness complexity through synchrony. Recently a cross-frequency coupling envelopes instrument, similar to my 2010 design, was shown to measure mobilization of human intelligence under task [5].

The theory behind TAG Sync

In 2010 I predicted that the brain could up-regulate its own adaptability and intelligence if it could monitor certain coupled interactions (synchronizations) of specific frequencies of its electrical voice, especially theta, alpha and gamma (TAG Sync). This interaction is called cross-frequency coupling  (CFC). Each brain has its own unique patterns of coupled frequencies that energetically (electrically) voice its activity. The CFC (timbre) of a friend’s voice allows it to be picked out of a crowd.  Changes in CFC/timbre allow us to recognize when an instrument is out of tune or damaged, or when a voice is either dissipated or adaptive (e.g., well-rested and awake). In 2010 I predicted that enabling the brain to monitor its CFC during problem solving could enable the brain to more efficiently mobilize and regulate insight, intelligence and awakeness. This led to the first specific employment of cross-frequency coupling protocols in neurofeedback and has been described by Chapin et al (2014) [1]. Cross-frequency coupling is important in this methodology, but it is only one aspect of my broader model, which is especially important because of its implications for the regulation of sickness behavior. My 2010 theory is “Global Broad-Band Synchronization (GBBS) over Small World Networks (SWN) near Self-Organized Criticality (SOC) according to the Constructal Law of Physics (CLaw) predicts design for technology assisted self-regulation (TASR)”. It is easier to say GBBS/SWN (pronounced Gibbs Swan) plus SOC & Claw predicts TASR. Those of you have taken my QEEG class over the last 3 years will recognize 3 new icons toward the bottom of the list, as promised. Those who have not taken the class should know that about half of it involves studying raw EEG. The class outline is posted here. The purpose of the icons is to provide images to remind me of important concepts plus real world examples.
CLaw:  Constructal Law of Physics Bejan states [3] “For a finite-size flow system  to persist in time (to live), its configuration must evolve in such a way that provides easier access  to the  currents that flow through it.” I applied the Constructal Law of Physics to neurocognitive networks and found Global Broad-Band Synchronization over Small World Networks, operating near self-organized criticality.  [more...]
GBBS:  Global Broad Band Synchronization GBBS (pronounced Gibbs) is a hallmark of consciousness but is not generally detectable in routine EEG. Like the fish in the photo the overwhelmed cortex forms a “bait ball” of synchronous activity. Chronic predator stress causes the bait ball and the brain to fracture and suffer a disconnection syndrome.   [more...]
SWN:  Small World Networks Precariously poised between rigidity and randomness, strange properties of memory, adaptability and efficiency are possible. A loss of small world efficiency in the cortex heralds cognitive decline [24]. Neurofeedback may function as an adaptogen to increase SWN efficiency. SWNs are embedded.   [more...]
SOC:  Self-Organized Criticality “... three functional properties of the cortex are optimized at criticality: 1) dynamic range, 2) information transmission, and 3) information capacity.” [25]   [under construction...]
SBeh: Sickness Behavior: SBeh refers to a stereotypical dissipation of epigenetic control accompanied by apoptosis of the self”. It results from a wide variety of trauma, intergenerational factors, chronic social defeat, etc. SBeh has an immune inflammatory component that reduces small world network efficiency and CFC and engenders relapse and other maladaptive behavior. Its alleviation requires neuroplasticity and neuroprotection.  [more...]
Cybernetics, Norbert Wiener, Kuramoto, Live Complexity Training: Wiener & Rosenblith {MIT} recorded to tape and analyzed the first QEEG. Wiener stressed the importance of alpha as a control frequency and with the ability to “pull” other nearby frequencies to it, similar to the Kuramoto oscillator in neural networks. Cybernetics refers to the mechanisms of control and communication in animals and machines. [27]  [under construction..]
CFC:  Cross Frequency Coupling Each instrument or voice has a unique production of bass, middle and high frequencies. This CFC is also called timbre. TAG Sync neurofeedback allows the user to choose any 2 or more frequency bands and train the client to couple their movements together.  [more...]
Complexity: Reduced complexity of the EEG is associated with a “reduced repetoire of functional abilities.” Elderly people with heightened creativity have increased EEG complexity associated with activated neural networks. [26]   [more...]
nTIE: New Theoretical Interpretation of Electroencephalography: Ulrich [23] describes EEG changes indicating “dissipation” and “disintegration” accompanying intrusion of various sub-awake states. These are managed as they appear during live complexity training (LCT). LCT (e.g., TAG Sync) reverses the EEG disintegrations of Ulrich and seeks the EEG signature of adaptive awakeness, especially as shown by increased cross-frequency coupling under task.  [under construction...]
TAMS: Traditional Asian Medical Systems:  Adaptogens for Small World Networks: Network topology of the five phases (wu xiang) is a small world network. Expert acupuncture helps the default mode network (DMN) mature adaptively according to fMRI [28]. In 2013 our team showed that standard NFB also adaptively matured the DMN [29]. The chronobiology of TAMS is prototypical cross-frequency coupling.  [under construction...]
The Medicine Buddha: Dzogchen, Bardo Tech, channels, winds and drops: In 2010 I predicted that TAG Sync could be used as a pointing out exercise for the nature of mind (rigpa), since it appeared to be the EEG signature of bardo between two thoughts. In 2013 it was found to also represent the bardo of the near death experience [30].  [more...]
TASR:  Technology-Assisted Self-Regulation / Self-Realization The Constructal Law of Physics (CLaw) [3] predicts that humans will evolve human designs (technology) to provide greater access to the flow of knowledge. To be truly awake and processing the environment means harnessing complexity through synchrony (e.g., its cross-frequency coupled components).  [under construction...]
Possible Mechanisms: 1 - TAG Sync trains cross frequency coupling (CFC) to increase under task, a correlate of increased fluid intelligence [5] and a marker of increased efficiency of small world network synchronization [6]; 2 - Reduced efficiency in CFC may represent a common final pathway in sickness behavior [7]; 3 - TAG Sync cross-frequency coupling training (especially on the DMN/FPN kernal) addresses fundamental aspects of the dysregulation found in autism [8], complex childhood PTSD [9], anxiety [10], depression [11], dementia [12], epilepsy [13], memory & aging [14], obsessive compulsive disorder [15], schizophrenia [16], tinnitus [17], and other conditions. 4 - Alteration of cross frequency coupling of theta and gamma can affect the state of consciousness [18]. 5 - Efficiency of conscious access improves with coupling of slow and fast neural oscillations [19]. 6 - TAG Sync monitoring and feedback may be a “pointing out exercise” for the natural non-discursive mind (cf. dzogchen and rigpa) [20]. This may also explain why practitioners may develop persistent non-symbolic experience [21]. 7 - TAG Sync promotes the type of spectral efficiency seen in the absence of sickness behavior in which Energy is coupled to effort [22]. 8 - TAG Sync methodology was predicted from TAG Sync theory to function as an adaptogen to counter stress and hasten adaptive maturation; 9 - The increased cross-frequency coupling seen in TAG Sync training may be a useful correlate of the “vigilance” of Bente and Ulrich [23]. 10 - TAG Sync training can also be called “Live Complexity Training” - LCT - as it helps bind complexity, uncertainty, and potentiality through global broad band synchronization.
Always Under Construction
Last modified:  July 6, 2016
References: [1] Chapin TJ, et al (2014) - Neurotherapy and Neurofeedback: Brain-Based Treatment for Psychological and Behavioral Problems. Routledge. pp 144. [2] Bak P (1999) – How Nature Works: The Science of Self-Organized Criticality.  Copernicus / Springer-Verlag, NY. [3] Bejan A (2012) – Design in Nature: How constructal law governs evolution in biology, physics, technology, and social organization. Anchor. [4] Strogatz S (2003) – Sync: How order emerges from chaos in the universe, nature, and daily life. Hyperion. [5] Pahor A, et al (2014) - Theta–gamma cross-frequency coupling relates to the level of human intelligence. Intelligence 46 (2014) 283-290. [6] Engel AK, et al (2013) - Intrinsic Coupling Modes - Multiscale Interactions in Ongoing Brain Activity. Neuron 80, Nov 20, 867-886. [7] Aru J, et al (2015) - Untangling cross-frequency coupling in neuroscience. Current Opinion in Neurobiology, 31:51–61. [8] Khan S, et al (2013) - Local and long-range functional connectivity is reduced in concert in autism spectrum disorders. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013 Feb 19;110(8):3107-12. [9] Daniels JK, et al (2011) - Default mode alterations in posttraumatic stress disorder related to early-life trauma - a developmental perspective. J Psychiatry Neurosci 2011;36(1) p56. [10] Miskovic V, et al (2011) - Changes in EEG cross-frequency coupling during cognitive behavioral therapy for social anxiety disorder. Psychological Science: 22;507. [11] Zheng C, et al (2015) - Synaptic plasticity-related neural oscillations on hippocampus-prefrontal cortex  pathway in depression. Neuroscience. Feb 12. [12] Xu X, et al (2015) - Effects of Hydrogen Sulfide on Modulation of Theta-Gamma Coupling in Hippocampus  in Vascular Dementia Rats. Brain Topogr. Mar 14. [13] Guirgis M, et al (2015) - Defining regions of interest using cross-frequency coupling in extratemporal lobe epilepsy patients. J Neural Eng. Mar 13;12(2). [14] Pinal D, et al (2015) - Stuck in Default Mode - Inefficient Cross-Frequency Synchronization May Lead to Age-Related Short-Term Memory Decline. Neurobiology of Aging. [15] Velikova S, et al (2010) - Dysfunctional brain circuitry in obsessive-compulsive disorder - Source and coherence analysis of EEG rhythms. Neuroimage 49; 977-983. [16] Allen EA, et al (2011) - Components of Cross-Frequency Modulation in Health and Disease. Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience; 5:59. [17] Adamchic I, et al (2014) - Abnormal cross-frequency coupling in the tinnitus network. Frontiers in Neuroscience, Sept 25. [18] Caixeta FV, et al (2013) - Ketamine alters oscillatory coupling in the hippocampus. Sci Rep. 2013; 3: 2348. [19] Nakatani C, et al (2014) - Efficiency of conscious access improves with coupling of slow and fast neural oscillations. J Cogn Neurosci. 2014 May;26(5):1168-79. [20] Borjigin J, et al (2013) - Surge of neurophysiological coherence and connectivity in the dying brain. Proc Nat Acad Sci, Aug 14, 2013. [21] Martin JA (2013) - A Continuum of Persistent Non-Symbolic Experiences in Adults. Center for the Study of Non-Symbolic Consciousness. [22] Schulman JJ, et al (2011) - Imaging of thalamocortical dysrhythmia in neuropsychiatry. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 29 July. [23] Ulrich G (2013) – The Theoretical Interpretation of Electroencephalography. BMed. [24] Servaas MN, et al (2015) - Connectomics and Neuroticism - An Altered Functional Network Organization. Neuropsychopharmacology 40, 296-304. [25] Shew ML, et al (2012) - The Functional Benefits of Criticality in the Cortex. The Neuroscientist. [26] Ueno K, et al (2014) - Neurophysiological basis of creativity in healthy elderly people: A multiscale entropy approach. Clin Neurophysiol Jul 6. [27] Wiener N (1948) – Cybernetics: On Control and Communication in the Animal and the Machine. MIT Press, Cambridge MA. [28] Dhond RP, et al (2008) - Acupuncture modulates resting state connectivity in default and sensorimotor brain networks. Pain, June; 136(3): 407-418. [29] Russell-Chapin L, et al (2013) - The effects of neurofeedback in the default mode network : Pilot study results of medicated children with ADHD. Journal of Neurotherapy, 17:35-42. [30] Borjigin J, et al (2013) - Surge of neurophysiological coherence and connectivity in the dying brain. Proc Nat Acad Sci, Aug 14, 2013.
Copyright 2016 by Douglas Dailey - All Rights Reserved.